First 100 Years

In Hampton Roads - the 17th Century 

This is the history of Hampton Roads, primarily centered on Lynnhaven Parish which became part of Princess Anne County in 1691.

Before the 17th Century. The first people to arrive had come from parts to the west 10,000 years ago, completing a migration that took 35,000 years when a small groups of people began their trek leaving Siberia and moving eastward into the Bering Straits, known as Beringia. This land mass, now a waterway into the Arctic Ocean, not only provided a land bridge to North America but a huge barrier in the form of a solid mass of ice, the last big North American Ice Age. There they lived for 20,000 years until 15,000 years ago when the Ice Age began to wane. Continuing on the journey, one small clan followed the reindeer herd into North America and populated both North and South America. Around 10,000 years ago these First Americans moved from the western plains into the eastern parts of America including the lands that became the states of North Carolina and Virginia. There they lived a peaceful existence in separate villages hunting the wild game and bountiful fish in waters of the Currituck Sound and Susquehanna River as this sunken river was still filling with waters to become a bay, the Chesapeake. 

1510 - 1572. The first Europeans to see the Chesapeake Bay were early 16th century Spanish explorers in search of the fabled Northwest Passage to India. Finally in 1570, the Spanish established a mission in the vicinity of the Paspahegh tribe, most likely near Kecoughtan (today’s Hampton, Virginia). Relationships with the natives soon became unfriendly over the Spaniards demands for food during a time of draught and their unwelcome proselytizing methods. In 1572 a Spanish supply ship returned and found that most of the missionaries had been killed by the Paspahegh. Bloodshed followed, but in the end the Spanish effectively abandoned plans for any further colonization in the region.

Ajac├ín Mission,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ajac%C3%A1n_Mission

1575 - Chief Powhatan and His Algonquin Confederation. Life would take a sudden turn in about 1575 by powerful Powhatan (Wahunsunacock) (1542-1618), Chief of the Virginia Algonquin Confederacy, whose tribe was situated at Werowocomoco on today’s Purtan Bay in the York River. He put together an Algonquian Confederation of 30 tribes, a powerful organization of affiliated tributary peoples, whose territory, called Tsenacommacah or "Densely Inhabited Land," stretched from south of the James River to the Potomac, and from the fall line to the Eastern Shore of Virginia with a population of about 14,000–21,000. Each of the tribes within this organization had its own weroance (chief), but all paid tribute to Chief Powhatan.  Descendants of those people are members today of the Pamunkey, Mattaponi, Chickahominy, Nansemond, Nanticoke, and Rappahannock tribes. Another group of First Americans were the Chesepians (known as the Chesapeake Native Americans). They were eastern-Algonquian speaking like the thousands of members of the Algonquian Confederacy, but they belonged to another group, the Carolina Algonquian, and were not well aligned to Powhatan's confederation. The Carolina Algonquian called themselves Weapemeoc, "People at the Nice Ocean," inhabiting the present counties of Camden, Currituck, Perquimans, and Pasquotank, North Carolina; and into the southern parts of Virginia Beach. They were a confederacy of independent tribes; Secotan, Croatan, Yeopim, Poteskeet, Perquimans, and Pasquotank. The Weapemeoc were peaceful people and were always under threat of attack from their Virginia Algonquin neighbors.


Sir Walter Raleigh (1554 – 1618)

1584-1607 - The Lost Colony of Roanoke Island, North Carolina.  In 1584 Queen Elizabeth I granted Sir Walter Raleigh a charter for the colonization of North America. The first expedition in 1584 provided information for future colonization, but attempts in 1585 led by Sir Richard Grenville and 1587 led by John White failed. Returning to England in 1587 for supplies, White was not able to return to Roanoke Island for three years because of war with Spain.

In his absence the group split up, some staying behind and others traveling north through Currituck Sound to Cape Henry and on to the Chesapeake Bay and the Lynnhaven River as this was their planned destination, not Roanoke Island. There the party stayed and lived for almost 20 years at two friendly Chesepian Native American villages, Chesepiuc and Apasus. Chesepiuc was located at Great Neck Point (at the east side of the Lesner Bridge and Lynnhaven Inlet), and Apasus near Lake Joyce. Not too long before a second English expedition arrived in 1607 to establish the Jamestown settlement, Powhatan massacred the entire Chesepian tribe including the English survivors of Roanoke Island, as revealed to Captain John Smith by Chief Powhatan. To add validity to his claim, Powhatan showed Smith several iron products produced in England.

The settlers who stayed behind on Roanoke Island moved 79 miles east to an area around Salmon Creek in the Merry Hill community, just across the Albemarle Sound from Edenton, in Bertie County, North Carolina, because White had left the colonists in 1587 with instructions to move to a site inland because of Spanish hostilities. This location had been a mystery right up to 2012 until British researchers found overlooked symbols hidden for centuries under a patch on John White’s map showing the new site.

White returned on August 18, 1590 to find the colony gone. Weather prevented a search and the next day he and his party set sail returning to  England.

John White’s detailed 425-year-old map showing the route taken by one group from the Lost Colony of Roanoke Island.  Author Paul Clancy wrote, “So when I came across this map for the first time, that’s got to be Virginia Beach, and that’s got to be the Lynnhaven.” December 16, 2012 - http://www.paulclancystories.com/2012/12/december-16-2012.html
 
Early Virginia Chesepian Native Americans

* “Finding Werowocomoco, Chief Powhatan’s Village” -
 http://hamptonroads.com/2013/06/virginia-protect-site-pocahontas-legends-origin
* “The Tuscarora Theory” - http://jayssouth.com/nc/roanoke1
* “North Carolina, British Researchers Find Clue to location of Lost Colony,” May 04, 2012 - http://able2know.org/topic/190073-1
* “Set Fair For Roanoke: Voyages and Colonies, 1584-1606,” 1985 by David B. Quinn - http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=3162964
* “The Roanoke ‘Lost’ Colony” - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roanoke_Colony
* “The Chesepians known as the Chesapeake” - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chesapeake_people
* “The Powhatan known as Virginia Algonquians” -  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Powhatan
* "The Weapemeoc Confederacy” - http://www.lost-colony.com/Yeopim.html
* “Virginia’s Connection to the Lost Colony,” by Richard Proescher, September 15, 2013 -

 http://hamptonroads.com/2013/09/virginia%E2%80%99s-connection-lost-colony
* “425-Year-Old Map Offers New Clues to the Disappearance of the Lost Roanoke Colony,” http://io9.com/5907923/425+year+old-map-offers-new-clues-to-the-disappearance-of-the-lost-roanoke-colony  

* “Natishma, Shaman of the Chesapeakes, Friend of the Roanoke Colony: What Happened to the Lost Colony,” by Richard Proescher, 2012
http://assets.booklocker.com/pdfs/6663s.pdf    http://hamptonroadswriters.org/richardproescher.php 
* "First Landing State Park and the Last Trace of a Vanquished Nation"
http://www.abandonedcountry.com/2013/04/01/first-landing-state-park-and-the-last-trace-of-a-vanquished-nation
"History of Virginia Beach, Wikipedia"
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Virginia_Beach
"Chesepians Village at Great Neck Point
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Neck_Point
"History of the Naticoke Indian Tribe"
http://www.nanticokeindians.org/history.cfm
Bartholomew Gosnold (1572 – 1607)
Bartholomew Gosnold” from Wikipedia  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bartholomew_Gosnold


1606. Bartholomew Gosnold, explorer of Cape Cod in 1602, obtained from King James an exclusive charter for a Virginia Company of London to establish a settlement in the New World. On December 20th, 1606 three ships left England with 144 men and boys.


 

 Reproduction of Godspeed commanded by Bartholomew Gosnold


April 26, 1607. Gosnold, Captain of the Godspeed; Christopher Newport, Captain of the Susan Constant (largest of the three ships); and John Ratcliffe, Captain of the Discovery (smallest of three ships -) made landfall at Cape Henry at what is now First Landing State Park.
Christopher Newport,” from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christopher_Newport#First_landing
John Ratcliffe,” from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Ratcliffe_(governor)
  

Reinactment of the first landing at Cape Henry on April 26, 1607. 

 Natives look on as the three ships anchor.

John Smith (1580 – 1631)

Upon landing the party opened orders from the Virginia Company and found instructions to move fifty miles up the James River, and also designate John Smith to be one of the leaders of the new colony. Since Captain Christopher Newport had charged Smith with mutiny during the voyage from England, this was indeed a surprising turn of events for all. 
John Smith,” from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Smith_(explorer) 

Before heading up to what is now Jamestown, the party lingered at Cape Henry for four days exploring the area. 

 (First Landing at Cape Henry). The following events of the next four days are excerpts from Master George Percy, London: 1608  http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/amerbegin/settlement/text1/JamestownPercyObservations.pdf
April 26th, 1607. About four o’clock in the morning [after almost 4 months at sea], we entered into the Bay of Chesupioc [Chesapeake]. There we landed [Cape Henry] and discovered [explored] a little way, but we could find nothing worth the speaking of, but fair meadows and goodly tall Trees, with such Fresh-waters running through the woods, as I was almost ravished at the first sight thereof.  At night, when we were going aboard, there came the Savages creeping upon all fours, from the Hills, like Bears, with their Bows in their mouths, [who] charged us very desperately in the faces, hurt Captain Gabriel Archer in both his hands, and a sailor in two places of the body very dangerous. After they had spent their Arrows, and felt the sharpness of our shot, they retired into the Woods with a great noise, and so left us.
April 27th, 1607. We began to build up our Shallop [small boat]. The Gentle- men and Soldiers marched eight miles up into the land. We could not see a Savage in all that march. We came to a place where they had made a great fire, and had been newly roasting Oysters. When they perceived our coming, they fled away to the mountains, and left many of the Oysters in the fire. We eat some of the Oysters, which were very large and delicate in taste.
April 28th, 1607.  We launched our Shallop [light sailboat]. The Captain [Christopher Newport] and some Gentlemen went in her, and discovered [explored] up the Bay. We went further into the Bay, and saw a plain plot of ground where we went on Land [Fort Monroe, Hampton]. Upon this plot of ground we got good store of Mussels and Oysters. We marched some three or four miles further into the woods, where we saw great smokes of fire. We marched to those smokes and found that the Savages had been there burning down the grass. When it grew to be towards night, we stood back to our Ships. We rowed over to a point of Land, where we found a channel which put us in good comfort. Therefore we named that point of Land Cape Comfort [Fort Monroe, Hampton].
April 29th, 1607. We set up a Cross at Chesupioc Bay, and named that place Cape Henry [after Henry Frederick Stuart, Prince of Wales, (1594 – 1612), the elder son of King James I & VI (1566 – 1625) and Anne of Denmark (1574 – 1619)]. [on that same day, under orders from the Virginia Company of London to find a more sheltered area up one of the rivers]…we came with our ships to Cape Comfort; and on to Kecoughtan “great town,” commanded by a son of Powhatan. http://www.fmauthority.com/about/fort-monroe/history


Great living oyster mounds

On their trip up the James, the party encountered the great living oyster mounds which would impede ships in later years.  At high tide they were hidden just below the water line. They remained a threat to navigation until they disappeared under three centuries of harvesting.

"Jamestown Island, Virginia. Here the first permanent English settlement in America was founded, May 13, 1607. Here the first Legislative Assembly in America convened, July 30, 1691. Here was the first capital of the Colony of Virginia, 1607-1698."

May 13, 1607.  Arriving at Jamestown Island, Gosnold opposed the location as being unhealthy, but was overruled, and, to his dismay, the low swampy area infested with malaria carrying mosquitoes and brackish water caused many deaths as well as his own only four months after he had landed.

Dec 1607.  John Smith set out to explore upriver and was captured by Opechancanough (1546-1646), younger brother of Chief Powhatan. He was taken to Werowocomoco where he persuaded his captors that he had only good intentions toward the native people. Remaining at Werowocomoco for several days Smith enjoying several large feasts. Eleven-year old Pocahontas, daughter of Chief Powhatan, may or may not have severed him at these meals, but she certainly did not save his life as folk lore mistakenly tells. Being of minor importance in the 17th century, the movement to canonize her began in the 1830’s and picked up steam in the fantastical Disney cartoon of 1995. Her undeserved role in history eclipses that of the Witch of Pungo Grace Sherwood (1660 – 1740) and Sarah Thoroughgood-Gookin-Yeardley (1609 – 1657), two Hampton Roads 17th century women of considerably more historical importance, but their stories remain local, while Pocahontas, her insignificant life transformed into a romantic myth, is perhaps the most recognizable and celebrated 17th century person of Hampton Roads.

Pocahontas, Powhatan, Opechancanough,” by Helen C. Rountree, 2005 http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/scu/summary/v012/12.2green.html  

1609-1610. In October 1609 Chief Powhatan placed the colony completely under siege and attempted to end the English settlement through starvation. A fleet from England, damaged by a hurricane, arrived months behind schedule with new colonists, but without expected food supplies. This started the “Starving Time.” The siege killed all but 60 of the 500 colonists during the winter of 1609–1610.   On June 7, 1610 the survivors boarded ships, abandoned the colony site, and sailed towards the Chesapeake Bay, where another supply convoy with new supplies and headed by a newly-appointed governor, Thomas West, Baron De La Warr, intercepted them on the lower James River and returned them to Jamestown.
Jamestown Settlement,” from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jamestown_Settlement
History of the Jamestown Settlement (1607–99)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Jamestown_Settlement_(1607%E2%80%931699)
 

John Rolfe (1585–1622) with his wife Pocahontas (1596-1617),
daughter of Chief Powhatan (1542-1618).

1610. John Rolfe became the first Jamestown man to successfully raise and export tobacco.  Seeing an opportunity to undercut Spanish tobacco imports by growing tobacco in Jamestown, he arrived in 1610 after being delayed by a severe hurricane that left his ship wrecked on a Bermuda reef. Within two years almost all of the colonists had followed suit, and the tobacco profits brought others to the colony ensuring the economic survival of the colony.
John Rolfe,” from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Rolfe

1613 – 1617. Pocahontas (1598-1617) was kidnapped by ship’s captain Samuel Argall and taken to Jamestown in April 1613. There her warm-hearted twenty-eight year old teacher John Rolfe fell in love with this seventeen year old daughter of Powhatan. After their marriage the two sailed to London for a seven-day world wind tour. On the return voyage Pocahontas became ill and died at the young age of 19.
1618. There were labor shortages due to the new tobacco industry. To solve the problem the Virginia Company devised the system of Headrights, grants of 50 acres of land to settlers for every paid passage. This system led to the development of indentured servitude where poor individuals would become workers for three to seven years to repay the landowners who had sponsored their transportation to Virginia.
Headright,” from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Headright

Sir George Yeardley, Deputy Virginia Governor (1616-1617) and
Virginia Governor (1619-1621), in 1619 bought 20 blacks he called
indentured servants for work on his 1,000 acre tobacco plantation.

1619. Sir George Yeardley (1587–1627) was the father of Colonel Francis Yeardley, Sarah Thoroughgood’s third husband. Yeardley senior was not only the founding father of representative government in America, the Virginia General Assembly, but also the founding father of a cruel system of human bondage that would eventually strip Africa of fifty million natives, the largest genocide of a people, ever.  In 1619 Yeardley bought 20 Africans he called indentured servants for work on his 1,000 acre tobacco plantation. Yeardley was so successful in using these Africans to work his tobacco plantations that soon he bought more blacks, this time as chattel slaves.

 A European artist's depiction of the Native American Massacre of 1622

A 1585 painting of Opechancanough (1546-1646) by John White

1622. Beginning with the Native American massacre of 1622, Virginia Algonquin Confederacy Chief Opechancanough (1546-1646), brother of deceased Chief Powhatan (1542-1618), abandoned diplomacy with the English settlers of the Virginia Colony as a means of settling conflicts and tried to force them to abandon the region. On Friday, 22 March 1622, he and his Algonquin warriors slaughtered 26% of Virginia’s entire white population. Investigation reveals that 320 colonists were killed (not 347 as published by the Virginia Company in August 1622)  including 255 men (80% of the total), 35 women (11%), and 30 children (9%)or 26 percent of the colonial population.
Jamestown at 400: Caught Between a Rock and a Slippery Slope,” History News Network, April 2007  http://hnn.us/article/38375
Indian Massacre of 1622,” from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Massacre_of_1622
Opchanacanough,” from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opchanacanough

1624. Jamestown had a population of 1,200 as a result of 6,000 settlers being sent by the Virginia Company, with almost 5 in 6 succumbing to disease, Native American attacks, draught and other mishaps. The Virginia Company told those signing up to go a much different story than the hardships they would incounter. Indentured servants made up 60% of all immigrants, and along with these volunteers British convicts were sent as involuntary indentured servants, some causing trouble and some running away to join with the Native Americans. The biggest blunder made by the colonists was their lack of respect for the Native Americans, the people whose lands they were taking. With a different approach they could have learned from the native people how to survive better in this foreign land and circumvented hostilities.  
Number of people settled in Jamestown in 1607 – 1720http://www.shmoop.com/jamestown/statistics.html

1621 – 1640. Captain Adam Thoroughgood (1604-1640) was only eighteen when he came to Kecoughtan (pronounced like kick a tan) (today’s Hampton) in 1621 as an indentured servant aboard the ship Charles in return for his passage. Adam worked off his indenture and returned to London in 1624 where he began carrying out an ambitious plan of sponsoring immigrants to Virginia in exchange for land under Virginia Company’s headright terms. Adam returned to Kecoughtan in 1628, bringing with him his wife, Sarah, and the first indentured servants that by 1635 would number 105. They came in 17 different ships. For paying passage for those 105, primarily from his wife’s dowry, he was awarded headrights to 5,350 acres of undeveloped lands (today’s northern Virginia Beach).  In the fall of 1634 Adam moved across the James River and quickly construct a crude wooden house on his estate on the shore of the Chesopean River (renamed Lynnhaven by Adam) in what is now a location near Lake Joyce in Baylake Pines.  History does not record the indentured servants he took with him to Lynnhaven Parish, but because of the expense, it is likely most came to work on his new estate. The names of those 105, in alphabetical order, are as follows:
Allerson, Ann
Alporte, Jon
Atkins. Wm. Jr
Atmore, Thomas
Belly, James
Bernard, Stephen
Bernards, John
Bilbie, Margaret
Blacock, Patrick
Boulton, Ann
Boulton, Thomas
Boyer Thomas
Boyer, Andrew
Bramly Franceis
Brewton, Jon
Brooks, Thomas
Burroughs, Ann
Burroughs, Wm
Chandler, Tho
Chant, Andrew
Colson, Susan
Cowes, John
Creaser, Eliza
Creaser, Tho
Curtisse, Eliza
Dyer John
Edwards, Wm
Eggleston, Arthur
Enies, John
Fawne, Wm
Fraford, Victo
Franklin, Henry
Gainie, Robert
Gastrock,Wm
Gosmore Eliz
Gye, Gilbert
Halley, Merciful
Harris, John
Heasell, Robert
Heyward, Humphrey
Hill, Henry
Hill, Jon
Hill, Mary
Hines, William
Holton, Jon
Holton, Wm
Hookes, Wm
Howell, Cob
Hutton, Daniel
Jenerie, Rich
Johnson, Richard
Jones, Edward
Keeling Thomas

Kempe, Wm
Lane Rachel
Leading, James
Leake, Jos
Lock, John
Long, Ann
Marshall Thomas
Mee, George
Melton, Thomas
Moise, Jon
Newarke, Joh
Newgent, Christ
Newton, Franceis
Palmer, Edward
Parish, Edward
Penton, Jon
Persie, John
Pitts, Edward
Poole, Richard
Proseer, Jane
Reynolds Jon
Reynolds, Edward
Russell, Dennis
Sedgewick, Joseph
Smith, Thomas
Spark, Ann
Speed, Wm
Spring Robert
Stanfield, Symond
Swaine, Stephen
Thorowgood, Thomas (Adam Thorowgood’s brother)
Underwood, Casandra
Wakefield, Jon
Wallis, Edward
Ward, Roger
Warner, Augustine *(George Washington's 2d great grandfather)
Was, Wm
Waters, Jon
Westerfield, Jane
Westwell Robert
Wheeler, Dorothy
Whitehead, George
Whitthorne, Ann
Wilson, James
Windham, Edward
Withers, Jon
Withers, Stephen
Wood Henry
Writt, John
(2 unaccounted)

And these are dates and arrival ships:
1628 - 4 people in "True Love" - John Lock, Andrew Boyer, and Thomas Boyer
1628 - 2 people in the "Hopewell" - Thomas Keeling and Rachel Lane
1629 - 32 people "Hopewell" -  himself, wife Sarah, and Thomas Thorowgood, Franceis Newton, James Leading, Stephen Bernard, Joh. Newarke, Edward Pitts, Rich. Jenerie, Wm. Edwards, Dennis Russell, John Bernards, Jon. Waters, Jos. Leake, Thomas Brooks, Jon. Moise, Jon. Penton, Edward Parish, Thomas Melton, AUGUSTINE WARNER (George Washington's 2d great grandfather), Tho. Chandler, Andrew Chant, John Persie, Edward Wallis, Thomas Boulton, Robert Heasell, Richard Johnson, Margaret Bilbie, Jane Proseer, Jane Westerfield, Ann Spark, and Susan Colson.
1629 - 6 people in a french ship - William Hines, Edward Reynolds, Wm. Hookes, Edward Palmer, Edward Jones, John Dyer
1633- 6 people in the “Africa” - Victo Fraford, Casandra Underwood, Merciful Halley, Ann Long, Dorothy Wheeler, Ann Allerson, in the "Africa";
1633 - 1 person in the "Christpopher & Mary" Eliz. Gosmore
1633 - 1 person in the “Ark” - Franceis Bramly
1633 - 11 people in the "Hopewell"  - John Writt, Wm. Fawne, Wm. Was, George Mee, Gilbert Gye, John Enies, James Wilson, Daniel Hutton, Wm. Gastrock,Wm. Speed, Jon. Reynolds 
1634 - 6 people in the "Bona Adventure" Jon. Wakefield, James Belly, Patrick Blacock, Stephen Swaine, John Cowes, and Ann Boulton
1634 – 1 person in the "Middleton" - Wm. Fletcher
1634 - 1 peson in the "Merchants Hope" - Robert Westwell
1634 - 1 person in the "John & Dorothy" - Robert Spring
1634 - 26 people in the "John & Dorothy" - Thomas Thorowgood (Adam Thorowgood’s brother) , Edward Windham, Cob. Howell, Tho. Creaser, Henry Hill, Roger Ward, Jon. Withers, Wm. Holton, Wm. Kempe, Humphrey Heyward, Jon. Alporte, Symond Stanfield, Robert Gainie, Thomas Smith, George Whitehead, Henry Franklin, Jon. Hill, Joseph Sedgewick, Arthur Eggleston, Richard Poole, Jon. Holton, Stephen Withers, Christ. Newgent, Jon. Brewton, Thomas Atmore, Mary Hill, Henry Wood
1635 - 7 people transportation on a Thorowgood ship - Wm. Burroughs, Ann Burroughs, Ann Whitthorne, Eliza. Creaser, Eliza Curtisse, Mary Hill, Jr. Wm. Atkins, Thomas Marshall.
Captain Adam Thoroughgood (Immigrant), Rootsweb, the Scott/Dines/Duncan/Dickson Website, 2011-11-15” - http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=jimscott&id=I15074    

Augustine Warner (1610 - 1674)

1635. Adam persuaded Augustus Warner (1610 - 1674) to come from England to settle in the colony as an indentured servant. After he had worked off his indenture in 1635 he followed Adam’s example by bringing twelve new settlers to Virginia and for that was given headrights to 600 acres in the Northern Neck’s Gloucester County, an area still sparsely populated.  Three people trace their lineage back to Augustus Warner. His daughter married Lawrence Townley, ancestors of General Robert E. Lee (1610 - 1674). His son, Augustine Warner, Jr.(1642-1681) had three daughters. One of them, Mildred Warner (1671 – 1701) married Lawrence Washington (1659–1698) in 1690, grandparents of George Washington (1732 - 1799); and another, Elizabeth Warner (1672-1720) married Colonel John Lewis in 1691, great-grand parents of Meriwether Lewis (1774 – 1809), leader of the Lewis and Clark Expedition to the Pacific Northwest. 


The Inn at Warner Hall

Today the Inn at Warner Hall in Gloucester County and adjacent famous cemetery recounts Warner’s rich history.
“Augustine Warner (1610 - 1674)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augustine_Warner
Warner Hall Graveshttp://home1.gte.net/mimieric/WHG.html
“Warner Hall Inn” (pictures)  http://warnerhall.com
“Warner Hall Graveshttp://home1.gte.net/mimieric/WHG.html

1628. Another noted person Adam persuaded to come from England to settle in the colony of Virginia as an indentured servant was Thomas Keeling (1608 - 1664). At the age of 20, Thomas arrived in the ship Hopewell. Seven years later around 1635 Thomas was granted one thousand acres of land on the eastern shore of the Lynnhaven River for the transportation of various persons to Virginia, and in 1636, he built his home which still stands today as the “Adam Keeling House” at today’s 3157 Adam Keeling Road. A December 1683 Lower Norfolk County Court record (book 4, page 155) titled Adam Keeling’s will (Thomas Keeling’s son) of 25 April, 1683 states, “To my wife Ann Keeling, that plantation I now live and inhabit upon.” Further, a Virginia Pilot article October 24, 1926 states, “The farm [known as the Keeling Tract] contains the famous old Keeling house, a brick structure that was built in 1636, and which is still in an admirable state of preservation.

1638. Francis Land II (1604 - February 15, 1657) arrived in the area and brought slaves to work the lucrative tobacco fields. By 1657 Francis had acquired 1,020 acres of land adjacent to Henry Woodhouse’s estate. He used flat bottom canoes to transport goods from Pine Tree Branch to the Chesapeake Bay. Today the Francis Land House stands at 3131 Virginia Beach Boulevard as built by one of Land’s descendants in the eighteenth century.
Captain Thoroughgood led 15 men against
the Nenticoke Native Americans in a harsh retaliation.
1638-1640. Most troubling were the Native American tribes who outnumbered the colonists by 4 to 1.  When several plantations in isolated areas were attacked and settlers massacred, Captain Adam Thoroughgood led 15 men against the Native Americans in a harsh retaliation.




The Adam Thoroughgood  House (built between 1639-1645)

1638 - 1645. In 1638 Adam Thoroughgood had a church, Lynnhaven Parish, started at today’s Church Point and a year later a more substantial house to replace his crude wooden one. Adam’s house lacked one brick wall when he died at the young age of 36 in 1640.  In 1645 Adam’s wife, Sarah, now widowed for a second time, completed the house and moved in with her four daughters and one son. Recently the city of Virginia Beach re-dated the Adam Thoroughgood House from the 1640’s to the 1740’s, but by using land grants and court records, a 10th generation Thoroughgood, Paul Treanor, wrote a book titled “The Thoroughgood House, Virginia Beach, Virginia,” 2011, documenting the true date.


What did Sarah Thoroughgood look like? No one knows, but from descriptions,
here is a portrait of a likeness showing a 1650 Virginia woman.

1640-1657. After Adam’s death, his wife Sarah Thoroughgood-Gookin-Yeardley (1609 – 1657) lived on for another 17 years, becoming a dominant force in Lynnhaven Parish. Before coming to Lynnhaven, while living in Kecoughtan (1628-1634) she gave birth to three girls Ann (1630-1703), Sarah (1631-1658), and Elizabeth (1633-1670), and later in Lynnhaven, Adam II (1638 - 1685); and finally at the age of 33 one daughter, Mary (1642 - ?), by her second husband Captain John Gookin.
Adam Thoroughgood Genealogyhttp://www.gjmesa.com/TNG/getperson.php?personID=P-108077169&tree=treeS1
http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=REG&db=mrmarsha&id=I36755
Captain Adam Thoroughgood (Immigrant),” Rootsweb, the Scott/Dines/Duncan/Dickson Website, 2011-11-15 - http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=jimscott&id=I15074
105 Indentured Servants” - http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=jimscott&id=I15074

1644 – 1646. With an English population in excess of 10,000 the Powhatans and other tribes, as they did in 1622, attacked the colonists killing almost 500. This time they had no prospect of forcing so many to leave. The attack was more in retaliation for the colonists taking their lands and making unkempt deals. A 1646 treaty settled any further conflicts, and the only two tribes remaining today, the Pamunkey and Mattaponi, maintain reservations that are stipulated in the 1646 treaty still in effect with Virginia.


1649. William Moseley I (1601-1655) came to Virginia from Rotterdam, Holland with his wife Suzanna, two sons, William II and Arthur, and a large quantity of family jewels. As a Cavalier opposed to Oliver Cromwell, the jewels were all he was able to get out of England when he fled to Holland. Trading jewels, primarily to Adam Thoroughgood’s widow Sarah Thoroughgood-Gookin-Yeardley (1609 – 1657), in exchange for livestock, William I slowly gained prominence. As Commissioner of Lower Norfolk County from 1649 to his death in 1655 he built a sprawling Dutch- roofed house, Greenwich Plantation, later called Rolleston Plantation by his descendants.


1650. Black involuntary indentured servants evolved into slavery, as blacks did not know the language or their rights in court. But the total number of slaves was estimated to be no more than 300 in Lynnhaven Parish. Coming from Barbados, Francis Land and Thomas Walke brought slaves with them to work the lucrative tobacco fields. There were also free blacks but their numbers were small and their freedom tenuous. There were also Native American slaves bought on the pretext of Christianizing them. Black freedom would slowly deteriorate during the 17th century. A Law of Virginia decreed that the conferring of baptism did not alter the condition of the person as to his bondage or freedom.


1655 - 1706. The English who settled in New England (Puritans) and Virginia brought with them their Anglican religion and with it the tradition of witch hunts, a gruesome church practice which saw about 50,000 executions of innocent women in Europe between 1480 and 1750. The earliest known accusation of witchcraft in America showed up in Lynnhaven Parish May 23, 1655 when the accuser, Ann Godby, was ordered to pay 300 pounds of tobacco for slander. Thirty-seven years later twelve-year-old Ann Putnam’s accusations sparked a mass hysteria in the small town of Salem, Massachusetts that would see 25 people executed and another 150 imprisoned for witchcraft. Another twelve years passed before witch hunting reared its ugly head again in the American Anglican Church. This time the charges were made again in Lynnhaven Parish (now the County of Princess Anne) when Grace Sherwood, the Witch of Pungo (1660 – 1740) was tried for witchcraft by the Lynnhaven Parish Anglican Church.  She was bound and cast into the waters of the Lynnhaven River on July 10, 1706. She survived the ordeal and was incarcerated for seven years in a jail next to the church. In 2006 the Governor of Virginia officially admitting Grace had been falsely accused and was not a witch but instead an incredible woman, a woman the state of Virginia and Lynnhaven Parish Church wronged.


1664. Colonel Thomas Walke I (1642-1694) was an immigrant from British-ruled Barbados. He married Mary Lawson in 1690. Four years after his marriage he died leaving three children who would become prominent citizens in Princess Anne County. Of three noted Walke historic homes (Fairfield Manor in the vicinity of Locke Lane and the Walke Manor House or the First Ferry Farm House at today’s 4136 Cheswick Lane) only one stands today, Upper Wolfsnare House on an important waterway in 1759.

1667. In August 1667 Adam Keeling, whose plantation was situated east of Captain Thoroughgood’s property just east of today’s Lesner Bridge, organized a group of people to dig a small pilot channel from the Lynnhaven River through a huge sandbar about a half-mile long to the Chesapeake Bay so boats would not have to make the long journey west to the mouth of the river which was at Little Creek. A month later, on September 6, 1667, the dreadful hurricane of 1667 struck, a storm considered one of the most severe hurricanes to ever strike Virginia. The hurricane devastated the Lynnhaven area as no other storm has ever done. The 1667 hurricane lasted about 24 hours and was accompanied by very violent winds and tides. Approximately 10,000 houses were blown over. Area crops (including corn and tobacco) were beat into the ground. Many livestock drowned in area rivers due to the twelve foot storm surge. The foundation of the fort at Point Comfort was swept into the river, and a graveyard of the First Lynnhaven Parish Church tumbled into the waters. Twelve days of rain followed this storm across Virginia. This system was blamed for enlarging the small pilot channel dug the month before to the size of an inlet and re-routing the river permanently. The new channel flow eventually eroded Church Point and undermined the church foundation. Five years later during the winter of 1672-73 another catastrophe hit the small Lynnhaven Parish when an unusually severe cold spell with hail and wind killed half the small herds of cattle left from the storm of 1667.
The Dreadful Hurricane of 1667http://www.hurricanescience.org/history/storms/pre1900s/1667

1670 - 1690. The settlers in Lynnhaven Parish suffered from attacks by French, Spanish and Dutch ships. Then there were the pirates. The pirate Capt. Kidd had his rendezvous on Pleasure House Creek, then part of the Lynnhaven River, and the English pirate Edward Teach (1680 –1718), better known as Blackbeard, buried his treasure in the huge sand banks near Cape Henry. In 1684 the English Government furnished a ketch for the protection of the Virginia coast. Lookouts were established along the shore for all suspicious vessels, and all ships coming to Virginia were provided with cannon and men trained to shoot them.





Francis, Lord Howard of Effingham (1643 – 1694)

1683. On September 28, 1683, Francis, Lord Howard of Effingham, was sworn in as Governor of Virginia. Overbearing, high living, a man of flabby features, haughty expression and contemptuous of the colonists, he continued the unpopular policies of his predecessors, Lord William Berkeley and Lord Thomas Culpeper. During his five years in office Lord Effingham worked to weaken the power and influence of the General Assembly, and thereby increased the resistance of the colonists to his authority. 

1699. In spite of the many drawbacks of unworthy governors, Virginia continued to prosper. The people up to this time were almost wholly English. The 17th century was coming to a close on a note of material and cultural progress with the gubernatorial administration of Francis Nicholson. The College of William and Mary, the second institution of higher learning in America, was chartered in 1693, and Middle Plantation (renamed Williamsburg in 1722), the site of the college, became the seat of government when the capital was moved from Jamestown in 1699.
Virginia – History,” http://www.city-data.com/states/Virginia-History.html
Virginia,” from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virginia#History
 The Lords Effingham and the American Colonies,” by Hilda Engbring Feldhake, 1976  http://www.archive.org/stream/lordseffinghamam00feld/lordseffinghamam00feld_djvu.txt
 History of the United States of America, Virginia,” http://www.usahistory.info/southern/Virginia.html

2013. After 406 years, the population of the Tidewater area reached about 1.7 million with around 4,000 new settlers arriving each year.